Dakota Reference Manual  Version 6.16
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Multilevel-Multifidelity sampling methods for UQ


Alias: multilevel_multifidelity_mc mlmfmc

Argument(s): none

Child Keywords:

Required/Optional Description of Group Dakota Keyword Dakota Keyword Description
Optional seed_sequence

Sequence of seed values for multi-stage random sampling

Optional fixed_seed

Reuses the same seed value for multiple random sampling sets

Optional pilot_samples

Initial set of samples for multilevel/multifidelity sampling methods.

Optional solution_mode

Solution mode for multilevel/multifidelity methods

Optional sample_type

Selection of sampling strategy

Optional export_sample_sequence

Enable export of multilevel/multifidelity sample sequences to individual files

Optional convergence_tolerance

Stopping criterion based on relative error reduction

Optional max_iterations

Number of iterations allowed for optimizers and adaptive UQ methods

Optional max_function_evaluations

Stopping criterion based on maximum function evaluations

Optional final_statistics

Indicate the type of final statistics to be returned by a UQ method

Optional rng

Selection of a random number generator

Optional model_pointer

Identifier for model block to be used by a method


An adaptive sampling method that utilizes both multilevel and multifidelity relationships within a hierarchical surrogate model in order to improve efficiency through variance reduction.

In the case of a multilevel relationship, multilevel Monte Carlo methods are used to compute an optimal sample allocation per level, and in the case of a multifidelity relationship, control variate Monte Carlo methods are used to compute an optimal sample allocation per fidelity. These two approaches can also be combined, resulting in the multilevel-multifidelity sampling approach below.

Multilevel Control Variate Monte Carlo

If both multilevel and multifidelity structure are included within a hierarchical model specification, then an inner control variate can be applied across two model fidelities for each level within an outer multilevel approach.

On each level, a control variate is active for the discrepancy $Y_{\ell}$ based on

\[ Y_{\ell}^\star = Y_{\ell} + \alpha_\ell \left( \hat{Y}^{\mathrm{LF}}_\ell - \mathbb{E}\left[ Y^{\mathrm{LF}}_\ell \right] \right), \]

where $Y^{\mathrm{LF}}_\ell = \gamma_\ell Q^{\mathrm{LF}}_\ell - Q^{\mathrm{HF}}_\ell$.

The optimal parameter $\gamma_\ell$ is computed from the correlation properties between model forms and discretization levels (see the theory manual for further details) and the optimal allocation $N_\ell$ (per level) is finally obtained from it.

Default Behavior

The multilevel_multifidelity_sampling method employs Monte Carlo sample sets be default, but this default can be overridden to use Latin hypercube sample sets using sample_type lhs.

Expected Output

The multilevel_multifidelity_sampling method reports estimates of the first four moments and a summary of the evaluations performed for each model fidelity and discretization level. The method does not support any level mappings (response, probability, reliability, generalized reliability) at this time.

Expected HDF5 Output

If Dakota was built with HDF5 support and run with the hdf5 keyword, this method writes the following results to HDF5:

In addition, the execution group has the attribute equiv_hf_evals, which records the equivalent number of high-fidelity evaluations.

Usage Tips

The multilevel_multifidelity_sampling method must be used in combination with a hierarchical model specification. The highest and lowest fidelity model must provide multiple discretization levels, for which it is necessary to identify the variable string descriptor that controls the resolution levels using solution_level_control as well as the associated array of relative costs using solution_level_cost.


The following method block

    model_pointer = 'HIERARCH'
      pilot_samples = 20 seed = 1237        #s0,#s1,#s2,#s3,#p0,#p1
      convergence_tolerance = .01           #s0,#s2,#s3,#p0,#p1

specifies a multilevel-multifidelity Monte Carlo study in combination with the model identified by the HIERARCH pointer. This model specification provides a two-dimensional hierarchy, comprised of two model forms each with four discretization levels:

    id_model = 'HIERARCH'
    surrogate hierarchical
      ordered_model_fidelities = 'LF' 'HF'

    id_model = 'LF'
      solution_level_control = 'N_x'
      solution_level_cost = 375. 10125. 81000. 648000.

    id_model = 'HF'
      solution_level_control = 'N_x'
      solution_level_cost = 5.67e+5 4.536e+6 2.1e+7 1.68e+8

Refer to dakota/test/dakota_uq_heat_eq_mlcvmc.in in the source distribution for this case as well as additional examples.

See Also

These keywords may also be of interest: